Circles and Stars

Sophie is playing a game called Circles and Stars. Sophie rolls one number cube and gets the number six. Sophie draws six circles on her paper. Sophie rolls the number cube again and gets the number three. Sophie draws three stars in each of the six circles. Sophie writes 6 x 3 on her paper. Sophie plays the game again. Sophie rolls one number cube and gets the number three. Sophie draws three circles on her paper. Sophie rolls the number cube again and gets the number six. Sophie draws six stars in each of the three circles. Sophie writes 3 x 6 on her paper. Sophie says she got the same total number of stars both times! Is Sophie correct? Show all your mathematical thinking.

Assessment

Plan

Possible Solutions

Solutions tabs

Assess

Anchor Papers

Novice

1

Apprentice

1
2

Practitioner

1
2

Expert

1
This student does not meet the standard.

Novice 1

Scoring Rationale

Problem Solving

Novice

The student's strategy of diagramming 18 circles with nine S's (stars?) in each circles would not work to solve the task. The student's answer, "NO," is not correct.

Reasoning & Proof

Novice

The student does not show correct reasoning of the underlying concepts of the task. The student is not able to place three stars in each of six circles or six stars in each of three circles. It appears that the student may have added six and three for a total of nine stars and multiplied six and three for a product of 18 circles to form the structure of her/his diagram.

Communication

Novice

The student does not earn credit for the term key because it is used incorrectly in the student's diagram.

Connections

Novice

The student does not make a mathematically relevant observation about her/his solution.

Representation

Apprentice

The student attempts to make a diagram but it is not accurate. The student diagrams 18 circles with nine S's (stars?) in each circle. The student's diagram does not record or communicate correct reasoning.

Overall Achievement Level:

Novice

,
This student does not meet the standard.

Apprentice 1

Scoring Rationale

Problem Solving

Practitioner

The student's strategy of making two arrays to determine that 6 x 3 and 3 x 6 have the same product works to solve the task. The student's answer, "Sophie is correct," is correct.

Reasoning & Proof

Practitioner

The student shows correct reasoning of the underlying concepts of the task. The student uses arrays to confirm that 18 stars is the product for the first and second game number rolls.

Communication

Apprentice

The student correctly uses the mathematical term array.

Connections

Practitioner

The student makes mathematically relevant observations about her/his solution by stating, "She makes 36 stars," and, "You can do 6 + 6 + 6 = 18 or 3 + 3 + 3 + 3 + 3 + 3 = 18 if you want."

Representation

Practitioner

The student's arrays are appropriate to the task and accurate. The circles and stars are labeled and the arrays are correctly constructed.

Overall Achievement Level:

Apprentice

This student does not meet the standard.

Apprentice 2

Scoring Rationale

Problem Solving

Practitioner

The student's strategy of making two diagrams to determine that 6 x 3 and 3 x 6 have the same product works to solve the task. The student's answer, "If I switch my equation I get the same answers so Sophie is correct," is correct.

Reasoning & Proof

Practitioner

The student shows correct reasoning of the underlying concepts of the task. The student uses diagrams to confirm that 18 stars is the product for the first and second game number rolls.

Communication

Practitioner

The student correctly uses the mathematical terms diagrams, key, circle, equation.

Connections

Apprentice

The student attempts to make a mathematically relevant observation about her/his solution by stating, "Sophie uses 26 stars in all the circles." The student may have regrouped incorrectly arriving at an incorrect number in the tens place.

Representation

Practitioner

The student's diagrams are appropriate to the task and accurate. The circles and stars are labeled by a key and each circle contains the correct number of stars.

Overall Achievement Level:

Apprentice

,
This student meets the standard.

Practitioner 1

Scoring Rationale

Problem Solving

Practitioner

The student's strategy of making diagrams to determine that 6 x 3 and 3 x 6 have the same product works to solve the task. The student's answer, "18 = 18 so she is correct," is correct.

Reasoning & Proof

Practitioner

The student shows correct reasoning of the underlying concepts of the task. The student uses diagrams to confirm that 18 stars is the product for the first and second game number rolls.

Communication

Practitioner

The student correctly uses the mathematical terms diagrams, key, circle, number line.

Connections

Practitioner

The student uses a different strategy to compare 6 x 3 and 3 x 6 by making three number lines. The student does not earn Expert credit for verification because the student does not link the two strategies/representations to confirm that Sophie was correct.

Representation

Practitioner

The student's diagrams are appropriate to the task and accurate. The circles and stars are labeled in a key and each circle contains the correct number of stars. The student's number lines are also appropriate to the task and accurate. The stars and circles are labeled and the jumps are correctly indicated.

Overall Achievement Level:

Practitioner

This student meets the standard.

Practitioner 2

Scoring Rationale

Problem Solving

Practitioner

The student's strategy of making diagrams to determine that 6 x 3 and 3 x 6 have the same product works to solve the task. The student's answer, "18 is the same answer so she is correct," is correct.

Reasoning & Proof

Practitioner

The student shows correct reasoning of the underlying concepts of the task. The student uses diagrams to confirm that 18 stars is the product for the first and second game number rolls.

Communication

Practitioner

The student correctly uses the mathematical term total from the task. The student also correctly uses the terms diagrams, key, circle, patterns.

Connections

Practitioner

The student makes the mathematically relevant observation, "You can do the + 3 or + 6 stars patterns to get 18. 3, 6, 9, 12, 15, 18 and 6, 12, 18."

Representation

Practitioner

The student's diagrams are appropriate to the task and accurate. The circles and stars are labeled by a key and each circle contains the correct number of stars.

Overall Achievement Level:

Practitioner

,
This student exceeds the standard.

Expert 1

Scoring Rationale

Problem Solving

Expert

The student's strategy of making tables to determine that 6 x 3 and 3 x 6 have the same product works to solve the task. The student's answer, "Sophie is correct," is correct. The student verifies her/his answer by generalizing and proving two rules.

Reasoning & Proof

Expert

The student shows correct reasoning of the underlying concepts of the task. The student uses tables to confirm that 18 stars is the product for the first and second game number rolls. The student justifies that her/his answer is correct by applying two rules, 3 x C = S and 6 x C = S.

Communication

Expert

The student correctly uses the mathematical term total from the task. The student also correctly uses the terms tables, dozen, multiples, pattern, rules, key, circles. The student uses the symbolic notation 3 x C = S, 6 x C = S.

Connections

Expert

The student makes the mathematically relevant Practitioner observations, "She actually draws a total of 36 stars," "That is 3 dozen stars," "3, 6, 9, 12, 15, 18 are multiples of 3-the pattern game 1," "6, 12, 18 are multiples of 6-the pattern game 2," and, "circle pattern is +1." The student makes the Expert connection by verifying that her/his answer is correct. The student generalizes the rules, 3 x C = S and 6 x C = S. The student uses the rules to solve for two, six, 10, and 100 circles with three per circle and one, two, three, 11, and 10 circles with six stars per circle. The student states, "The rules match the tables. I am correct, Sophie is correct."

Representation

Expert

The student's tables are appropriate to the task and accurate. All labels are provided and the data is correct. The student uses her/his tables to generalize two rules to support the data on the tables and to verify that her/his answer is correct.

Overall Achievement Level:

Expert

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